Lake Pergusa is the only natural lake in Sicily, and is located a few kilometers from Enna in the municipality of Pergusa. It is of great geological, faunal and cultural importance and for this reason the first Special Nature Reserve of the Region of Sicily was established.
It is located between a group of hills belonging to the Erei mountains, of origin with brackish waters, despite being in the center of the island. The origin of the salinity of the Pergusine waters could be linked to the fact that, at a certain depth, there are deposits of gypsum-sulphurous formations and that in the underlying clayey mass there are often rock salt crystals. Lake Pergusa is fed by rain and groundwater, and represents a nerve center for the migratory flow of birds given its geographical position located along one of the main migratory routes of the western Palearctic region. Some recent sightings have confirmed the presence of endangered specimens in Italy such as the purple heron. There are also rare species such as the marsh harrier and the ferruginous duck and it is a nesting area for the Sicilian rock partridge. Among the fauna we find porcupines, weasels, turtles and various species of amphibians.
In the past on the lake there was a phenomenon unique in the world that dyed the waters a blood red color due to the presence of a small shrimp.
The lake is surrounded by sinuous hills, on which the thick vegetation clings of the Selva Pergusina, cultivated in the woods during the thirties with the planting of alien and coniferous species, alternating to form the letters DUX, in honor of Benito Mussolini, who had wanted the reclamation and that between 1936 and 1937, ordered the creation of the homonymous village.
A prehistoric village has been identified on one of the heights of the basin, known as Cozzo Matrice. In the area there are temples for offerings, rich necropolis, sacred buildings and a natural cave transformed into a place of worship.
The Autodromo di Pergusa develops along the coast of the lake. important and known, about 5 km long. Built in 1951, it has been the setting for prestigious international events including Formula 1, the Superbike World Championship and the Targa Florio, in which many legendary names in international motorsport took part.
Around the lake there are various areas equipped with tables and chairs.